Monkeypox is an STD? WHO has declared monkeypox as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. A case of monkeypox has now been reported in Delhi which has no international travel history. Is this community spread? How can you protect yourself from this contagious disease?
Monkeypox is an STD?
Monkeypox is not a new disease. It was first isolated from a colony of monkeys in the late 1950s. The virus is in the same genus as variola (the causative agent of smallpox) and vaccinia virus (the virus used in one of the available smallpox vaccines). It gets its name from a 1958 outbreak among a group of laboratory test monkeys inside a research facility in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Monkeypox Zoonotic disease – how is it spread?
“Animals have an important role in the spread of monkeypox. Humans and monkeys are both casual hosts and wild rodents are commonly seen harboring the virus. The strain isolated from West Africa appears to be less virulent than the strain from Central Africa. Dr Dhiren Gupta, Intensivist and Senior Consultant, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital said, ‘This clade 2 i.e. West African strain is spreading all over the world.
Prolonged contact with animals (monkeys, squirrels, wild rodents) or animal meat (wild animals) or close contact with infected persons. Primarily, it is not spread through the air, but if one is in close contact with an infected patient (>3 hours, within 2 metres), infection can occur through large droplets. The secondary attack rate is about 7 percent. It is less contagious than smallpox and smallpox.
Who is at higher risk of contracting monkeypox?
Male – Most cases of monkeypox have been seen in males.
LGBTQ – Men and men who have sex with the LGBTQ community have been flagged by the WHO.
Health care workers – can also spread through skin contact through droplets in long-term and close contact with the patient being treated.
Immunocompromised people – people with long-term health complications
Monkeypox is an STD?
Is monkeypox simply a sexually transmitted disease (STD)?
“At the moment this is an outbreak that is concentrated in men who have sex with men, especially those who have multiple sexual partners,” the WHO said. Dr Tedros said, “It is therefore essential that all countries work together with communities of men who have sex with men to design and deliver effective information and services, and to adopt measures that affect protect both the health, human rights and dignity of communities.”
But is it an STD? Health experts and epidemiologists disagree. “We have not gathered evidence to say that it is simply an STD, or that it is only transmitted through sexual contact, a sexually transmitted disease. It’s not like HIV, we can’t clearly classify it as just HIV, but these men are in close contact with each other. There are other modes of spread, such as unsafe and uncontrolled blood transfusions too,” said Dr Sanjay Rai, professor, and community medicine at AIIMS. Dr Rai Nako is also a National Instructor on HIV/AIDS Counseling and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) for the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India of India, since 1997 and 2008.
“Men who have sex with men have been given a classification of patients with high risk status. But that is not the case. Dr Giridhar Babu, Professor and Head Life Course Epidemiology at the Public Health Foundation of India, said, “Anyone can get monkeypox if they come in contact with people who have these skin areas, unless the scabs is not formed and a normal skin returns.”
Dr Gupta explains the stages of monkeypox symptoms
The prodromal phase – typically lasting five days, is characterized by fever, acute headache, lymphadenopathy, back pain, myalgia and severe fatigue. Swelling of the lymph nodes may be generalized (involving many different places on the body) or may be localized to several areas.
Rash – a skin rash usually begins within one to four days after fever appears and continues for a period of two to three weeks, although rashes without a prodrome have been reported. The rash is initially painful but becomes itchy. The rash usually begins as macules 2 to 5 mm in diameter. Macules later develop into papules, vesicles, and then pustules.
Lesions are well palpated, deep-seated, and often develop a navel (a central depression at the top of the lesion), this may begin in the face, then move to the palm of the hands and the soles of the feet.
Several nonspecific laboratory findings may be seen in patients with monkeypox. These include abnormal aminotransferases, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia.
What to do when you come in contact with monkeypox?
“The smallpox vaccination, if given within 4 days, can prevent the disease. Although vaccination may be considered for up to 14 days after exposure, if vaccination is given between days 4 and 14, it is believed that the vaccination reduces the symptoms of the disease but does not prevent the disease,” said Dr Gupta. Told.
Indicated treatment regimens – People with severe disease and at risk of serious disease (eg, under 8 years of age, pregnant or lactating women, patients with complications of infection, immunocompromised patients). “At this time, tecovirimat is the treatment of choice, although some experts may suggest dual therapy with tecovirimat and cidofovir in patients with severe disease,” says Gupta. However, experts also to say that some people require active intervention through medical treatment in young people.
Monkeypox is an STD?
How can you stop the spread monkeypox?
Isolate yourself in the room for three weeks until all the wounds have peeled off and fallen off. Incubation period – The incubation period of monkeypox virus infection usually ranges from 5 to 13 days, but can range from 4 to 21 days.
Fastest rate of spread in the last 50 years. Earlier this year, 3040 cases of monkeypox were reported to the WHO from 47 countries.
Since then, the outbreak has continued to grow, and there have now been more than 16,000 cases from 75 countries and territories, and five deaths, Dr Tedros said. Ever since the first human case was reported in the Republic of the Congo in 1970, experts have seen it spread at a rate not seen in the past 50 years.
“The disease was first reported in humans in the Republic of the Congo in the 1970s. There were outbreaks in several African countries. An outbreak was also seen in the Americas in 2003. But transmission of zoonotic diseases has increased over the years. Whether it is covid19 or any other. We need to investigate further. This could be because there has been an increase in animal and human contact, consumption of unfinished and raw food meat,” said Dr Sanjay Rai.
“Once it is in community within a country then travel history is of no importance. Traveler history is not an important criterion. Guidelines have been issued by the Government of India,” said Dr. Giridhar Babu.
Monkeypox is an STD?
Vaccines against monkeypox
There are two available vaccines that can reduce the risk of developing monkeypox. Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine (JYNNEOS in the United States, IMVANEX in the European Union, and IMVAMUNE in Canada and the ACAM2000 vaccine, “Small pox vaccine only provides 82-85% protection against monkeypox. Even the anti-virals that have been recommended have no proven efficacy,” said Dr Rai.
“Vaccines are also not free of complications – vaccines are also known to have serious side effects, which should not be used randomly,” Dr Babu said. India may need to store these vaccines for any imminent emergency in future.
“The Indian vaccine stockpile for smallpox was abandoned after the eradication of smallpox. We need a renewed focus on keeping vaccine stocks. “They said.
No need to panic, low death rate from monkeypox
“Monkeypox is a self-limiting disease with a low mortality rate. As long as immunity is not compromised, scarring does not occur,” said Dr. Gupta, “Those who were born before 1977 should be vaccinated against smallpox and they should be provided some protection.”
Dr Rai also points out that the mortality rate has been low in the last few years. “A person’s immunity goes down. There have been 0-10% of deaths in Africa over the past several years. Recently, there have been 3% of deaths in Africa,” he said.